National Bolshevism, which would progressively emerge from the positions taken by Niekisch in Widerstand, was first born from a reformulation of the theme of the “orientation towards the East” (Ostorientierung), a theme whose appearance directly took place, initially at least, in a given geographical (the “central” position of Germany in Europe) and historical (after Versailles) situation. For the National Revolutionaries, the Diktat of Versailles was firstly a weapon that permitted the Western bourgeoisie, with liberal capitalism and with the Western states, indivisible together, to pursue the war against Germany by new means. Thus Versailles represented the West of the time in its political, geographic, and ideological dimension. To fight for national independence and against the submission of Germany to foreign interests (Verfremdung) thus implied social revolution. Conversely, the struggle against capitalism required the reestablishment of German sovereignty. Relying on the “anti-capitalist nostalgia of the German people” (Gregor Strasser), the National Revolutionaries attacked capitalism, by the reason that its ideological inspiration was of “foreign” origin, that is to say Western: the capitalism of the time was a materialist system, the economic system of the victors and a system foreign to the German spirit.
So in perspective, the German people appeared doubly proletarianized. From one part, on the inside, they were majorly exploited by the propertied bourgeoisie: one finds here the Lassallian idea according to which the vast majority of the people are dominated by a “thin layer” of capitalists. From the other part, Germany was itself globally, a proletarian country, in the measure where it was alienated from its being by the Western bourgeois states. The two ideas then activated themselves mutually. The bourgeoisie could bluster against Versailles, it proved itself incapable of renouncing its privileges, because it remained attached to the same mode of life as the authors of the Diktat. Only a social revolution could revitalize Germany and constitute the people as a nation (Nationwerdung), and on the inverse, only national liberation could provide the energy and create the necessary conditions for a social revolution. A double consequence thus followed. Socialism whose central objective was to realize the nation, the cause of the people and the cause of the nation are one in the same cause: the divide between the right and the left was obsolete. For other part, against Versailles, all the means were good. Belittled by the West, Germany did not have another choice but to turn towards the East linking its fate to Soviet Russia, which was the center of global anti-Western feeling. Hence the belief in a Schicksalsgemeinschaft, a communal Russo-German destiny.